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Vampires - thinkSie würden aus diesem Grund auch generell empfindlich auf Licht jeglicher Art reagieren. In diesem Dorf trat ohne ersichtlichen Grund ein vermehrtes Sterben der Bewohner auf, so verstarben innerhalb von acht Tagen neun Personen verschiedenen Alters nach eintägiger, angeblich bereits ausgestandener Krankheit. Rock-Celebrities und ein Pirat. Möchten Sie an dem alles entscheidenden Kampf teilnehmen? Bei zu oberflächlich begrabenen Opfern der Seuche konnte diese weiterhin übertragen werden, was das vermehrte Sterben in den Dörfern erklären sollte.
One of the reasons that vampires make such successful literary figures is that they have a rich and varied history and folklore.
Writers can play with the "rules" while adding, subtracting or changing them to fit whatever story they have in mind.
Finding a vampire is not always easy: The boy should be dressed in white, placed upon the horse, and the pair set loose in a graveyard at midday.
Interest and belief in revenants surged in the Middle Ages in Europe. Though in most modern stories the classic way to become a vampire is to be bitten by one, that is a relatively new twist.
In his book " Vampires, Burial, and Death: Folklore and Reality " Yale, , folklorist Paul Barber noted that centuries ago, "Often potential revenants can be identified at birth, usually by some abnormality, some defect, as when a child is born with teeth.
Similarly suspicious are children born with an extra nipple in Romania, for example ; with a lack of cartilage in the nose, or a split lower lip in Russia … When a child is born with a red caul, or amniotic membrane, covering its head, this was regarded throughout much of Europe as presumptive evidence that it is destined to return from the dead.
The belief in vampires stems from superstition and mistaken assumptions about postmortem decay. The first recorded accounts of vampires follow a consistent pattern: Some unexplained misfortune would befall a person, family or town — perhaps a drought dried up crops, or an infectious disease struck.
Before science could explain weather patterns and germ theory, any bad event for which there was not an obvious cause might be blamed on a vampire.
Vampires were one easy answer to the age-old question of why bad things happen to good people. Villagers combined their belief that something had cursed them with fear of the dead, and concluded that perhaps the recently deceased might be responsible, having come back from the graves with evil intent.
Graves were unearthed, and surprised villagers often mistook ordinary decomposition processes for supernatural phenomenon. For example, though laypeople might assume that a body would decompose immediately, if the coffin is well sealed and buried in winter, putrefaction might be delayed by weeks or months; intestinal decomposition creates bloating which can force blood up into the mouth, making it look like a dead body has recently sucked blood.
These processes are well understood by modern doctors and morticians, but in medieval Europe were taken as unmistakable signs that vampires were real and existed among them.
The best way to deal with vampires, of course, is to prevent them from coming back in the first place. The lugat cannot be seen, he can only be killed by the dhampir, who himself is usually the son of a lugat.
In different regions, animals can be revenants as lugats; also, living people during their sleep. Dhampiraj is also an Albanian surname.
Many rituals were used to identify a vampire. Corpses thought to be vampires were generally described as having a healthier appearance than expected, plump and showing little or no signs of decomposition.
Folkloric vampires could also make their presence felt by engaging in minor poltergeist -like activity, such as hurling stones on roofs or moving household objects,  and pressing on people in their sleep.
Apotropaics —items able to ward off revenants—are common in vampire folklore. Garlic is a common example,  a branch of wild rose and hawthorn plant are said to harm vampires, and in Europe, sprinkling mustard seeds on the roof of a house was said to keep them away.
Vampires are said to be unable to walk on consecrated ground , such as that of churches or temples, or cross running water. Some traditions also hold that a vampire cannot enter a house unless invited by the owner; after the first invitation they can come and go as they please.
Methods of destroying suspected vampires varied, with staking the most commonly cited method, particularly in southern Slavic cultures.
Piercing the skin of the chest was a way of "deflating" the bloated vampire. This is similar to a practice of " anti-vampire burial ": Decapitation was the preferred method in German and western Slavic areas, with the head buried between the feet, behind the buttocks or away from the body.
In a 16th-century burial near Venice , a brick forced into the mouth of a female corpse has been interpreted as a vampire-slaying ritual by the archaeologists who discovered it in Further measures included pouring boiling water over the grave or complete incineration of the body.
In the Balkans, a vampire could also be killed by being shot or drowned, by repeating the funeral service, by sprinkling holy water on the body, or by exorcism.
In Romania, garlic could be placed in the mouth, and as recently as the 19th century, the precaution of shooting a bullet through the coffin was taken.
For resistant cases, the body was dismembered and the pieces burned, mixed with water, and administered to family members as a cure. In Saxon regions of Germany, a lemon was placed in the mouth of suspected vampires.
Tales of supernatural beings consuming the blood or flesh of the living have been found in nearly every culture around the world for many centuries.
Blood drinking and similar activities were attributed to demons or spirits who would eat flesh and drink blood; even the devil was considered synonymous with the vampire.
Almost every nation has associated blood drinking with some kind of revenant or demon, or in some cases a deity.
The Persians were one of the first civilisations to have tales of blood-drinking demons: Lilitu was considered a demon and was often depicted as subsisting on the blood of babies,  and estries , female shape-changing, blood-drinking demons, were said to roam the night among the population, seeking victims.
According to Sefer Hasidim , estries were creatures created in the twilight hours before God rested. An injured estrie could be healed by eating bread and salt given her by her attacker.
Greco-Roman mythology described the Empusae ,  the Lamia ,  and the striges. Over time the first two terms became general words to describe witches and demons respectively.
Empusa was the daughter of the goddess Hecate and was described as a demonic, bronze -footed creature. She feasted on blood by transforming into a young woman and seduced men as they slept before drinking their blood.
They were described as having the bodies of crows or birds in general, and were later incorporated into Roman mythology as strix , a kind of nocturnal bird that fed on human flesh and blood.
Many myths surrounding vampires originated during the medieval period. The 12th-century English historians and chroniclers Walter Map and William of Newburgh recorded accounts of revenants,   though records in English legends of vampiric beings after this date are scant.
He linked this event to the lack of a shmirah guarding after death as the corpse could be a vessel for evil spirits.
Vampires proper originate in folklore widely reported from Eastern Europe in the late 17th and 18th centuries. These tales formed the basis of the vampire legend that later entered Germany and England, where they were subsequently embellished and popularized.
One of the earliest recordings of vampire activity came from the region of Istria in modern Croatia , in Local villagers claimed he returned from the dead and began drinking blood from the people and sexually harassing his widow.
The village leader ordered a stake to be driven through his heart, but when the method failed to kill him, he was subsequently beheaded with better results.
During the 18th century, there was a frenzy of vampire sightings in Eastern Europe, with frequent stakings and grave diggings to identify and kill the potential revenants.
Even government officials engaged in the hunting and staking of vampires. Blagojevich was reported to have died at the age of 62, but allegedly returned after his death asking his son for food.
When the son refused, he was found dead the following day. Blagojevich supposedly returned and attacked some neighbours who died from loss of blood. The two incidents were well-documented.
Government officials examined the bodies, wrote case reports, and published books throughout Europe.
The problem was exacerbated by rural epidemics of so-claimed vampire attacks, undoubtedly caused by the higher amount of superstition that was present in village communities, with locals digging up bodies and in some cases, staking them.
In , King James wrote a dissertation on witchcraft titled Daemonologie in which he wrote the belief that demons could possess both the living and the dead.
Within his classification of demons , he explained the concept through the notion that incubi and succubae could possess the corpse of the deceased and walk the earth.
As a devil borrows a dead body, it would seem so visibly and naturally to any man who converses with them and that any substance within the body would remain intolerably cold to others which they abuse.
In the Greek librarian of the Vatican, Leo Allatius , produced the first methodological description of the Balkan beliefs in vampires Greek: From , Philippe Rohr devotes an essay to the dead who chew their shrouds in their graves, a subject resumed by Otto in , and then by Michael Ranft in The subject was based on the observation that when digging up graves, it was discovered that some corpses had at some point either devoured the interior fabric of their coffin or their own limbs.
Theologians and clergymen also address the topic. Some theological disputes arose. A paragraph on vampires was included in the second edition of De servorum Dei beatificatione et sanctorum canonizatione , On the beatification of the servants of God and on canonization of the blessed, written by Prospero Lambertini Pope Benedict XIV.
In other words, vampires did not exist. Dom Augustine Calmet , a French theologian and scholar, published a comprehensive treatise in titled Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants which investigated the existence of vampires, demons, and spectres.
Calmet conducted extensive research and amassed judicial reports of vampiric incidents and extensively researched theological and mythological accounts as well, using the scientific method in his analysis to come up with methods for determining the validity for cases of this nature.
As he stated in his treatise: These revenants are called by the name of oupires or vampires, that is to say, leeches ; and such particulars are related of them, so singular, so detailed, and invested with such probable circumstances and such judicial information, that one can hardly refuse to credit the belief which is held in those countries, that these revenants come out of their tombs and produce those effects which are proclaimed of them.
Calmet had numerous readers, including both a critical Voltaire and numerous supportive demonologists who interpreted the treatise as claiming that vampires existed.
These vampires were corpses, who went out of their graves at night to suck the blood of the living, either at their throats or stomachs, after which they returned to their cemeteries.
The persons so sucked waned, grew pale, and fell into consumption ; while the sucking corpses grew fat, got rosy, and enjoyed an excellent appetite.
The controversy in Austria only ceased when Empress Maria Theresa of Austria sent her personal physician, Gerard van Swieten , to investigate the claims of vampiric entities.
He concluded that vampires did not exist and the Empress passed laws prohibiting the opening of graves and desecration of bodies, sounding the end of the vampire epidemics.
Other European countries followed suit. Despite this condemnation, the vampire lived on in artistic works and in local folklore. Classified as vampires, all share the thirst for blood.
Various regions of Africa have folktales featuring beings with vampiric abilities: The Loogaroo is an example of how a vampire belief can result from a combination of beliefs, here a mixture of French and African Vodu or voodoo.
The term Loogaroo possibly comes from the French loup-garou meaning "werewolf" and is common in the culture of Mauritius.
During the late 18th and 19th centuries the belief in vampires was widespread in parts of New England , particularly in Rhode Island and eastern Connecticut.
There are many documented cases of families disinterring loved ones and removing their hearts in the belief that the deceased was a vampire who was responsible for sickness and death in the family, although the term "vampire" was never used to describe the dead.
The deadly disease tuberculosis , or "consumption" as it was known at the time, was believed to be caused by nightly visitations on the part of a dead family member who had died of consumption themselves.
Her father, assisted by the family physician, removed her from her tomb two months after her death, cut out her heart and burned it to ashes.
Vampires have appeared in Japanese cinema since the late s; the folklore behind it is western in origin.
There are two main vampire-like creatures in the Philippines: The mandurugo is a variety of the aswang that takes the form of an attractive girl by day, and develops wings and a long, hollow, thread-like tongue by night.
The tongue is used to suck up blood from a sleeping victim. They use an elongated proboscis-like tongue to suck fetuses from these pregnant women.
They also prefer to eat entrails specifically the heart and the liver and the phlegm of sick people. The Malaysian Penanggalan is a woman who obtained her beauty through the active use of black magic or other unnatural means, and is most commonly described in local folklore to be dark or demonic in nature.
She is able to detach her fanged head which flies around in the night looking for blood, typically from pregnant women. She appeared as an attractive woman with long black hair that covered a hole in the back of her neck, with which she sucked the blood of children.
Filling the hole with her hair would drive her off. Corpses had their mouths filled with glass beads, eggs under each armpit, and needles in their palms to prevent them from becoming langsuir.
This description would also fit the Sundel Bolongs. Films like Encounters of the Spooky Kind and Mr. Vampire were released during the jiangshi cinematic boom of the s and s.
In modern fiction, the vampire tends to be depicted as a suave, charismatic villain. Vampire hunting societies still exist, but they are largely formed for social reasons.
In early local press spread rumours that a vampire haunted Highgate Cemetery in London. Amateur vampire hunters flocked in large numbers to the cemetery.
Several books have been written about the case, notably by Sean Manchester, a local man who was among the first to suggest the existence of the " Highgate Vampire " and who later claimed to have exorcised and destroyed a whole nest of vampires in the area.
Local police stated that no such crime had been reported and that the case appears to be an urban legend. In , a physics professor at the University of Central Florida wrote a paper arguing that it is mathematically impossible for vampires to exist, based on geometric progression.
According to the paper, if the first vampire had appeared on 1 January , and it fed once a month which is less often than what is depicted in films and folklore , and every victim turned into a vampire, then within two and a half years the entire human population of the time would have become vampires.
In one of the more notable cases of vampiric entities in the modern age, the chupacabra "goat-sucker" of Puerto Rico and Mexico is said to be a creature that feeds upon the flesh or drinks the blood of domesticated animals , leading some to consider it a kind of vampire.
The "chupacabra hysteria" was frequently associated with deep economic and political crises, particularly during the mids.
In Europe, where much of the vampire folklore originates, the vampire is usually considered a fictitious being; many communities may have embraced the revenant for economic purposes.
In some cases, especially in small localities, beliefs are still rampant and sightings or claims of vampire attacks occur frequently. In Romania during February , several relatives of Toma Petre feared that he had become a vampire.
They dug up his corpse, tore out his heart, burned it, and mixed the ashes with water in order to drink it. An alternative collective noun is a "house" of vampires.
Commentators have offered many theories for the origins of vampire beliefs and related mass hysteria. Paul Barber in his book Vampires, Burial and Death has described that belief in vampires resulted from people of pre-industrial societies attempting to explain the natural, but to them inexplicable, process of death and decomposition.
People sometimes suspected vampirism when a cadaver did not look as they thought a normal corpse should when disinterred. Rates of decomposition vary depending on temperature and soil composition, and many of the signs are little known.
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